It seems the online learning is going to continue for some more time. With time the focus has also shifted from how to conduct a virtual class to how to authentically assess students learning online and moreover, how to keep students from cheating in online exams. Online education lacks the quality and integrity of in person instruction, is the general assumption. It is this assumption that stigmatizes all students as cheaters and the focus then shifts from developmental teaching and learning to punitive measures.
Online education pedagogy is intentionally designed for virtual teaching, learning and assessment with strategically deployed tools that provide support throughout the online life cycle of a student. Hurried transition to a fully optimized online learning is not realistic. The primary objective should be to give students meaningful engagement with faculty members and peers in remote learning. Pressure and stress are the key factors that drive students to cheat and they are facing both these days. Students who are fully engaged, connected with each other and supported are less likely to cheat.
They also may not feel the need to cheat when they are invited to demonstrate their learning perhaps in case studies, scenario-based projects, word problems etc. This may prove to be a more authentic measure of assessing them than some high stakes exams. Another suggestion could be to replace some MCQs or True/False questions with short answer questions. You could also ask students to record a brief explanation of the answer and return the recording after the exam.